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Rehabilitation medicine is a highly specialized field that demands extensive medical training, expertise, and experience to fully comprehend. Successful rehabilitation requires a motivated patient, a team of professionals led by a PM&R physician, and often times a caregiver or caregivers as well. The most inspiring patient populations can be found in rehab, where individuals work tirelessly to regain their independence and improve their quality of life.

Conditions that almost always benefit from consultation with a PM&R Physician:


Complex sports injuries

Inflammatory polyneuropathy 

Major multiple trauma

Movement disorders

Musculoskeletal disorders

Multiple sclerosis

Neurological conditions

Parkinson's disease & parkinsonism

Rheumatologic disorders

Spinal cord injury


Traumatic brain injury

Conditions that typically benefit from consultation with a PM&R Physician:

   Acute pain
   Alzheimer's disease
   Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
   Ankle arthritis
   Ankle instability
   Ankylosing spondylitis
   Articular cartilage injury
   Atypical Parkinsonism
   Autoimmune neurological disorder
   Auto-inflammatory diseases
   Autonomic dysreflexia
   Autonomic failure
   Autonomic neuropathy
   Avulsion injury
   Axial spondyloarthropathy
   Back pain
   Baker cyst
   Balance problems
   Biceps tendinitis
   Biceps tear
   Bladder dysfunction
   Bone cancer pain
   Bowel dysfunction
   Brachial plexus injury
   Brachial neuritis (parsonage turner syndrome)
   Broken elbow (rehab)
   Broken wrist (rehab)
   Calcific tendinitis
   Cancer-related fatigue
   Cancer-related pain
   Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
   Cartilage injury
   Central nervous system disorders
   Central sensitization syndromes
   Cerebral palsy
   Cerebrovascular disease
   Cervical spine deformity
   Cervical dystonia
   Cervical herniated disc
   Cervical kyphosis
   Cervical myelopathy
   Cervical radiculopathy
   Cervical spinal stenosis
   Cervical spondylolisthesis
   Cervical spondylosis
   Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 
   Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy 
   Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP)
   Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)
   Communication disorders
   Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)
   Compression fracture
   Congenital hand deformities
   Congenital myopathy disorder
   Connective tissue disorders
   Corticobasal degeneration (corticobasal syndrome)
   Critical limb ischemia
   Cubital tunnel syndrome
   De Quervain tenosynovitis
   Degenerative brain disease
   Degenerative disc disease
   Demyelinating neuropathy
   Demyelinating polyneuropathy
   Diabetic neuropathy
   Discogenic back pain
   Disc disease
   Dislocated elbow (chronic/recurrent)
   Dislocated hip (chronic/recurrent)
   Dislocated knee (chronic/recurrent)
   Dislocated shoulder (chronic/recurrent)
   Drug-induced myopathy
   Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)
   Elbow impingement
   Elbow instability
   Erectile dysfunction
   Essential tremor
   Facet joint syndrome
   Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
   Fecal incontinence
   Femoral neuropathy
   Finger instability
   Flatfeet (pes planus)
   Foot deformities
   Foot drop
   Foot injuries
   Foot instability
   Fractures (rehabilitation)
   Fronto-temporal dementia
   Frozen shoulder
   Functional limitations
   Functional movement disorders
   Gait disturbance
   Gait unsteadiness
   Ganglion cyst
   Gaucher disease
   Generalized pain disorder
   Golf injuries
   Golfer's elbow
   Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) 
       -see AIDP and related conditions above
   Hamstring injury
   Hand arthritis
   Hand injuries
   Head and brain injury
   Head injury
   Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN)
   Hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN)
   Hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy (HMSN)
   Hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN)
   Herniated disk
   Hip arthritis
   Hip dysplasia
   Hip impingement
   Hip instability
   Hip labrUM tear
   Hip tendinitis
   Huntington's disease
   Hyperextended knee
   Hypertrophic neuropathy (HN)
   Iliotibial band syndrome (IT band)
   Inclusion Body Myositis
   Inflammatory arthritis
   Inflammatory myopathies
   Joint instability
   Knee arthritis
   Knee bursitis
   Knee loose body
   Knee pain
   Kneecap subluxation
   Labral tear
   Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) sprain
   Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) tear
   Leg length discrepancy
   Leg pain
   Ligament pain
   Limb deformities
   Limb difference
   Limb girdle dystrophy
   Limb loss
   Lumbar herniated disk
   Lumbar pain
   Lumbar radiculopathy
   Lumbar spinal stenosis
   Lumbar spondylosis
   Lumbosacral plexopathy
   Medial collateral ligament (MCL) sprain
   Medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear
   Median neuropathy
   Meralgia paresthetica
   Metabolic myopathy
   Metatarsophalangeal joint sprain
   Mild cognitive impairment (MCI)
   Minicore myopathy
   Mitochondrial myopathy
   Mononeuritis multiplex
   Morton's neuroma
   Motor neuron disease
   Movement disorders
   Multiple ligament injury
   Multiple sclerosis (MS)
   Multiple system atrophy (MSA)
   Multi-sensory imbalance
   Muscle atrophy
   Muscle spasms
   Muscle strains
   Muscle twitching
   Muscle weakness
   Muscular dystrophy
   Myofascial pain syndrome
   Myotonic dystrophy
   Myotubular myopathy
   Neck pain
   Nemaline myopathy
   Nerve compression syndrome
   Nerve entrapment
   Neural tube defect
   Neuralgic amyotrophy
   Neurocognitive disorders
   Neurodevelopmental disorders (adults)
   Neurogenic bladder dysfunction
   Neurogenic bowel dysfunction
   Neurogenic claudication (pseudoclaudication)
   Neurologic muscle weakness
   Neuromuscular scoliosis
   Neuromyelitis optica
   Neuropathic pain syndromes
   Niemann-Pick disease
   Non-traumatic myelopathy
   Olecranon bursitis
   Optic neuritis
   Osteochondritis dissecans
   Overactive bladder
   Palindromic rheumatism
   Parkinson's disease
   Parkinson plus syndromes
   Patellar tendinitis
   Patellar tendon tear
   Patellofemoral instability
   Patellofemoral pain syndrome
   Pelvis fracture
   Peripheral artery disease (PAD)
   Peripheral nerve disorders
   Peripheral nerve injuries
   Peripheral nerve tumors
   Peripheral neuropathy
   Periprosthetic fracture
   Peroneal neuropathy
   Persistent post-concussive symptoms (Post-concussion syndrome)
   Phantom pain
   Piriformis syndrome
   Plantar fasciitis
   Polymyalgia rheumatica
   Post COVID syndrome
   Posterior cortical atrophy
   Posterior cruciate ligament injury
   Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction
   Post-herpetic neuralgia
   Post-knee surgery chronic pain
   Postoperative pain
   Post-traumatic arthritis
   Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)
   Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS)
   Primary progressive aphasia
   Progressive supranuclear palsy
   Psoriatic arthritis
   Pulled elbow
   Radial neuropathy
   Reactive arthritis
   Rectal prolapse
   Recurrent dislocation
   Repetitive stress injury
   Residual limb pain
   Rheumatoid arthritis
   Rotator cuff injury
   Rotator cuff tear
   Rotator cuff tear arthropathy
   Rotator cuff tendinitis
   Sacroiliac joint dysfunction
   Sacroiliac pain syndromes
   Scaphoid fracture
   Scapuloperoneal muscular dystrophy
   Scheuermann's kyphosis
   Sciatic neuropathy
   Separated shoulder
   Septic arthritis
   Seronegative inflammatory arthritis
   Sever's disease
   Sexual dysfunction
   Shin splints
   Shoulder disorder
   Shoulder impingement syndrome
   Shoulder instability
   Shoulder subluxation
   Skeletal dysplasia
   SLAP tear
   Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
   Small fiber neuropathy
   Spatial disorientation
   Spina bifida
   Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease)
   Spinal compression fracture
   Spinal cord injury
   Spinal cord metastases
   Spinal cord tumor
   Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)
   Spinal pain
   Spinal stenosis
   Spine deformity
   Spinocerebellar ataxia
   Spondylotic myelopathy
   Sports hernia
   Sports injuries
   Sprained ankle
   Sprained finger
   Sprained thumb
   Sprengel's deformity
   Stress incontinence
   Stiff Person Syndrome
   Subarachnoid hemorrhage
   Swollen knee
   Syndromic scoliosis
   Tailbone pain
   Tardive dyskinesia
   Tay-Sachs disease
   Tendon pain
   Tennis elbow
   Tension headache
   Tension myalgia
   Thalamic pain
   Thoracic herniated disk
   Thoracic myelopathy
   Thoracic outlet syndrome
   Thoracic radiculopathy
   Thrower's shoulder
   Thumb arthritis
   TMJ disorders
   Torn meniscus
   Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
   Transverse myelitis
   Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
   Traumatic injury
   Trigger finger
   Trochanteric bursitis
   Turf toe
   UCL injury
   Ulnar nerve entrapment
   Ulnar neuropathy
   Ulnar wrist pain
   Upper back pain disorder
   Urge incontinence
   Urinary incontinence
   Vasovagal syncope
   Vestibular disorders
   Vestibular migraine
   Vestibular neuritis
   Wrist instability
   Wrist ligament injuries
   Wrist pain
   Writer's cramp


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